Formula to determine dating age range
Here’s the biggest difference between what you experienced in your college organic chemistry lab versus a cosmetic formulation lab.
In an organic lab, you mix chemicals together and hope something happens. As a formulating chemist, you mix chemicals together and hope nothing happens.
For example, "10 seconds ago", the precision of the meaning would be lost because the minuscule latter time interval is swamped by uncertainty in the former.
Though the universe might in theory have a longer history, the International Astronomical Union presently use "age of the universe" to mean the duration of the Lambda-CDM expansion, or equivalently the elapsed time since the Big Bang in the current observable universe.
If one extrapolates the Lambda-CDM model backward from the earliest well-understood state, it quickly (within a small fraction of a second) reaches a singularity called the "Big Bang singularity".
This singularity is not understood as having a physical significance in the usual sense, but it is convenient to quote times measured "since the Big Bang" even though they do not correspond to a physically measurable time.
Because the date is based on a calendar-dependent equinox rather than the astronomical one, there are differences between calculations done according to the Julian calendar and the modern Gregorian calendar.
One of the most powerful features of pivot tables is their ability to group data.
Any field added as a row or column label is automatically grouped by the values that appear in that field.
At select intervals you evaluate your samples for various physical, chemical and performance characteristics to see how they have changed.
If the changes are minimal according to your company standards, then your formula is said to have “passed” stability testing.